Hypnotherapy

HYPNOSIS: AN IMPORTANT MULTIFACETED THERAPY

“The mind/body dualism proposed by Descartes allowed physicians to investigate and experiment with the body while minimizing concern that its manipulation affected the mind and soul. This philosophy made medical practice acceptable to theologians of that time, and it persists in much of modern medicine. However, as Braid wrote about hypnosis 150 years
ago, “The . . . phenomena . . . point to the importance of combining the study of psychology with that of physiology, and vice versa. I believe the attempt made to study these two branches of science so much apart from each other, has been a great hindrance to the successful study of either

Given our evolving understanding of the mechanisms that underlie psychophysiologic phenomena, it is time for clinicians to recognize that patients may benefit from study and treatment of both mind and body, regardless of whether the presenting complaint appears to be the result of psychological or physical causes. Clinical hypnosis provides us a tool with which to engage the mind to benefit the entire person.”

This is the final section of a very interesting paper published by Dr Ran D. Anbar, MD, in the Journal of Paediatrics, October 2006, that talks about the changes occurring in how science see the relationship between mind and body, and how hypnosis sits precisely at the nexus.

As such, and although it has been recognised as a, “legitimate medical tool by the British Medical Society in 1955 and by the American Medical Association in 1958”, it is only now being seen as playing an increasingly important role in the treatment of both psychological and physiological problems.

The paper outlines criteria the profession must meet in order to achieve its full potential.

You can read the entire paper here

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The Effectiveness of Hypnosis

Here is a brief review of some of the research evidence on the effectiveness of hypnosis:

90.6% Success Rate for Smoking Cessation Using Hypnosis

Of 43 consecutive patients undergoing this treatment protocol, 39 reported remaining abstinent from tobacco use at follow-up (6 months to 3 years post-treatment). This represents a 90.6% success rate using hypnosis.

University of Washington School of Medicine, Depts. of Anesthesiology and Rehabilitation Medicine, Int J Clin Exp Hypn. 2001 Jul;49(3):257-66. Barber J.

87% Reported Abstinence From Tobacco Use With Hypnosis

A field study of 93 male and 93 female CMHC outpatients examined the facilitation of smoking cessation by using hypnosis. At 3-month follow-up, 86% of the men and 87% of the women reported continued abstinence from the use of tobacco using hypnosis.

Performance by gender in a stop-smoking program combining hypnosis and aversion. Johnson DL, Karkut RT. Adkar Associates, Inc., Bloomington, Indiana. Psychol Rep. 1994 Oct;75(2):851-7.

PMID: 7862796 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

81% Reported They Had Stopped Smoking After Hypnosis

Thirty smokers enrolled in an HMO were referred by their primary physician for treatment. Twenty-one patients returned after an initial consultation and received hypnosis for smoking cessation. At the end of treatment, 81% of those patients reported that they had stopped smoking, and 48% reported abstinence at 12 months post-treatment.

Texas A&M University, System Health Science Center, College of Medicine, College Station, TX USA. Int J Clin Exp Hypn. 2004 Jan;52(1):73-81. Clinical hypnosis for smoking cessation: preliminary results of a three-session intervention. Elkins GR, Rajab MH.

Hypnosis Patients Twice As Likely To Remain Smoke-Free After Two Years

Study of 71 smokers showed that after a two-year follow up, patients that quit with hypnosis were twice as likely to remain smoke-free than those who quit on their own.

Guided health imagery for smoking cessation and long-term abstinence. Wynd, CA. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 2005; 37:3, pages 245-250.

Hypnosis More Effective Than Drug Interventions For Smoking Cessation

Group hypnosis sessions, evaluated at a less effective success rate (22% success) than individualized hypnosis sessions. However, group hypnosis sessions were still demonstrated here as being more effective than drug interventions.

Ohio State University, College of Nursing, Columbus, OH 43210, USA Descriptive outcomes of the American Lung Association of Ohio hypnotherapy smoking cessation program. Ahijevych K, Yerardi R, Nedilsky N.

Hypnosis Most Effective Says Largest Study Ever: 3 Times as Effective as Patch and 15 Times as Effective as Willpower.

Hypnosis is the most effective way of giving up smoking, according to the largest ever scientific comparison of ways of breaking the habit. A meta-analysis, statistically combining results of more than 600 studies of 72,000 people from America and Europe to compare various methods of quitting. On average, hypnosis was over three times as effective as nicotine replacement methods and 15 times as effective as trying to quit alone.

University of Iowa, Journal of Applied Psychology, How One in Five Give Up Smoking. October 1992.

(Also New Scientist, October 10, 1992.)

Hypnosis Over 30 Times as Effective for Weight Loss

Investigated the effects of hypnosis in weight loss for 60 females, at least 20% overweight. Treatment included group hypnosis with metaphors for ego-strengthening, decision making and motivation, ideomotor exploration in individual hypnosis, and group hypnosis with maintenance suggestions. Hypnosis was more effective than a control group: an average of 17 lbs lost by the hypnosis group vs. an average of 0.5 lbs lost by the control group, on follow-up.

Cochrane, Gordon; Friesen, J. (1986). Hypnotherapy in weight loss treatment. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 54, 489-492.
Two Years Later: Hypnosis Subjects Continued To Lose Significant Weight

109 people completed a behavioral treatment for weight management either with or without the addition of hypnosis. At the end of the 9-week program, both interventions resulted in significant weight reduction. At 8-month and 2-year follow-ups, the hypnosis subjects were found to have continued to lose significant weight, while those in the behavioral-treatment-only group showed little further change.

Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology (1985)

Hypnosis Subjects Lost More Weight Than 90% of Others and Kept it Off

Researchers analyzed 18 studies comparing a cognitive behavioral therapy such as relaxation training, guided imagery, self monitoring, or goal setting with the same therapy supplemented by hypnosis.

Those who received the hypnosis lost more weight than 90 percent of those not receiving hypnosis and maintained the weight loss two years after treatment ended.

University of Connecticut, Storrs Allison DB, Faith MS. Hypnosis as an adjunct to cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy for obesity: a meta-analytic reappraisal. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1996;64(3):513-516.

Hypnosis More Than Doubled Average Weight Loss

Study of the effect of adding hypnosis to cognitive-behavioral treatments for weight reduction, additional data were obtained from authors of two studies. Analyses indicated that the benefits of hypnosis increased substantially over time.

Kirsch, Irving (1996). Hypnotic enhancement of cognitive-behavioral weight loss treatments--Another meta-reanalysis. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 64 (3), 517-519.

Hypnosis Showed Significantly Lower Post-Treatment Weights

Two studies compared overweight smoking and non-smoking adult women in an hypnosis-based, weight-loss program. Both achieved significant weight losses and decreases in Body Mass Index. Follow-up study replicated significant weight losses and declines in Body Mass Index. The overt aversion and hypnosis program yielded significantly lower post-treatment weights and a greater average number of pounds lost.

Weight loss for women: studies of smokers and nonsmokers using hypnosis and multi-component treatments with and without overt aversion. Johnson DL, Psychology Reprints. 1997 Jun;80(3 Pt 1):931-3.

Hypnotherapy group with stress reduction achieved significantly more weight loss than the other two treatments.

Randomised, controlled, parallel study of two forms of hypnotherapy (directed at stress reduction or energy intake reduction), vs dietary advice alone in 60 obese patients with obstructive sleep apnoea on nasal continuous positive airway pressure treatment.

J Stradling, D Roberts, A Wilson and F Lovelock, Chest Unit, Churchill Hospital, Oxford, OX3 7LJ, UK

Hypnosis can more than double the effects of traditional weight loss approaches

An analysis of five weight loss studies reported in the Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology in 1996 showed that the “… weight loss reported in the five studies indicates that hypnosis can more than double the effects” of traditional weight loss approaches.

University of Connecticut, Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology in 1996 (Vol. 64, No. 3, pgs 517-519).

Weight loss is greater where hypnosis is utilized

Research into cognitive-behavioral weight loss treatments established that weight loss is greater where hypnosis is utilized. It was also established that the benefits of hypnosis increase over time.

Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology (1996)

Showed Hypnosis As “An Effective Way To Lose Weight”

A study of 60 females who were at least 20% overweight and not involved in other treatment showed hypnosis is an effective way to lose weight.

Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology (1986)

Hypnosis Reduces Frequency and Intensity of Migraines

Compared the treatment of migraine by hypnosis and autohypnosis with the treatment of migraine by the drug prochlorperazine (Stemetil). Results show that the number of attacks and the number of people who suffered blinding attacks were significantly lower for the group receiving hypnotherapy than for the group receiving prochlorperazine. For the group on hypnotherapy, these two measures were significantly lower when on hypnotherapy than when on the previous treatment. It is concluded that further trials of hypnotherapy are justified against some other treatment not solely associated with the ingestion of tablets.

Anderson JA, Basker MA, Dalton R, Migraine and hypnotherapy, International Journal of Clinical & Experimental Hypnosis 1975; 23(1): 48-58.

Hypnosis Reduces Pain and Speeds up Recovery from Surgery

Since 1992, we have used hypnosis routinely in more than 1400 patients undergoing surgery. We found that hypnosis used with patients as an adjunct to conscious sedation and local anesthesia was associated with improved intraoperative patient comfort, and with reduced anxiety, pain, intraoperative requirements for anxiolytic and analgesic drugs, optimal surgical conditions and a faster recovery of the patient. We reported our clinical experience and our fundamental research.

[Hypnosis and its application in surgery] Faymonville ME, Defechereux T, Joris J, Adant JP, Hamoir E, Meurisse M, Service d'Anesthesie-Reanimation, Universite de Liege, Rev Med Liege. 1998 Jul;53(7):414-8.

Hypnosis Reduces Pain Intensity

Analysis of the simple-simple main effects, holding both group and condition constant, revealed that application of hypnotic analgesia reduced report of pain intensity significantly more than report of pain unpleasantness.

Dahlgren LA, Kurtz RM, Strube MJ, Malone MD, Differential effects of hypnotic suggestion on multiple dimensions of pain. Journal of Pain & Symptom Management. 1995; 10(6): 464-70.

Hypnosis Reduces Pain of Headaches and Anxiety

The improvement was confirmed by the subjective evaluation data gathered with the use of a questionnaire and by a significant reduction in anxiety scores.

Melis PM, Rooimans W, Spierings EL, Hoogduin CA, Treatment of chronic tension-type headache with hypnotherapy: a single-blind time controlled study. Headache 1991; 31(10): 686-9.

Hypnosis Lowered Post-treatment Pain in Burn Injuries

Patients in the hypnosis group reported less post treatment pain than did patients in the control group. The findings are used to replicate earlier studies of burn pain hypnoanalgesia, explain discrepancies in the literature, and highlight the potential importance of motivation with this population.

Patterson DR, Ptacek JT, Baseline pain as a moderator of hypnotic analgesia for burn injury treatment. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology 1997; 65(1): 60-7.

Hypnosis Lowered Phantom Limb Pain

Hypnotic procedures appear to be a useful adjunct to established strategies for the treatment of phantom limb pain and would repay further, more systematic, investigation. Suggestions are provided as to the factors which should be considered for a more systematic research program.

Treatment of phantom limb pain using hypnotic imagery. Oakley DA, Whitman LG, Halligan PW, Department of Psychology, University College, London, UK.

Hypnosis Has a Reliable and Significant Impact on Acute and Chronic Pain

Hypnosis has been demonstrated to reduce analogue pain, and studies on the mechanisms of laboratory pain reduction have provided useful applications to clinical populations. Studies showing central nervous system activity during hypnotic procedures offer preliminary information concerning possible physiological mechanisms of hypnotic analgesia. Randomized controlled studies with clinical populations indicate that hypnosis has a reliable and significant impact on acute procedural pain and chronic pain conditions. Methodological issues of this body of research are discussed, as are methods to better integrate hypnosis into comprehensive pain treatment.

Hypnosis and clinical pain. Patterson DR, Jensen MP, Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA USA 98104 Psychol Bull. 2003 Jul;129(4):495-521.

Hypnosis is a Powerful Tool in Pain Therapy and is Biological in Addiction to Psychological

Attempting to elucidate cerebral mechanisms behind hypnotic analgesia, we measured regional cerebral blood flow with positron emission tomography in patients with fibromyalgia, during hypnotically-induced analgesia and resting wakefulness. The patients experienced less pain during hypnosis than at rest. The cerebral blood-flow was bilaterally increased in the orbitofrontal and subcallosial cingulate cortices, the right thalamus, and the left inferior parietal cortex, and was decreased bilaterally in the cingulate cortex. The observed blood-flow pattern supports notions of a multifactorial nature of hypnotic analgesia, with an interplay between cortical and subcortical brain dynamics. Copyright 1999 European Federation of Chapters of the International Association for the Study of Pain.

Functional anatomy of hypnotic analgesia: a PET study of patients with fibromyalgia. Wik G, Fischer H, Bragee B, Finer B, Fredrikson M, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Karolinska Institute and Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden Eur J Pain. 1999 Mar;3(1):7-12.

Hypnosis Useful in Hospital Emergency Rooms

Hypnosis can be a useful adjunct in the emergency department setting. Its efficacy in various clinical applications has been replicated in controlled studies. Application to burns, pain, pediatric procedures, surgery, psychiatric presentations (e.g., coma, somatoform disorder, anxiety, and post traumatic stress), and obstetric situations (e.g., hyperemesis, labor, and delivery) are described.

peeblemj@menninger.edu

Significantly More Methadone Addicts Quit with Hypnosis. 94% Remained Narcotic Free

Significant differences were found on all measures. The experimental group had significantly less discomfort and illicit drug use, and a significantly greater amount of cessation. At six month follow up, 94% of the subjects in the experimental group who had achieved cessation remained narcotic free.

A comparative study of hypnotherapy and psychotherapy in the treatment of methadone addicts. Manganiello AJ, American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 1984; 26(4): 273-9.

Hypnosis Shows 77 Percent Success Rate for Drug Addiction

Treatment has been used with 18 clients over the last 7 years and has shown a 77 percent success rate for at least a 1-year follow-up. 15 were being seen for alcoholism or alcohol abuse, 2 clients were being seen for cocaine addiction, and 1 client had a marijuana addiction

Intensive Therapy: Utilizing Hypnosis in the Treatment of Substance Abuse Disorders. Potter, Greg, American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, Jul 2004.

Raised Self-esteem & Serenity. Lowered Impulsivity and Anger

In a research study on self-hypnosis for relapse prevention training with chronic drug/alcohol users. Participants were 261 veterans admitted to Substance Abuse Residential Rehabilitation Treatment Programs (SARRTPs). individuals who used repeated self-hypnosis “at least 3 to 5 times a week,” at 7-week follow-up, reported the highest levels of self-esteem and serenity, and the least anger/impulsivity, in comparison to the minimal-practice and control groups.

American Journal of Clinical Hypnotherapy (a publication of the American Psychological Association) 2004 Apr;46(4):281-97)

Hypnosis For Cocaine Addiction Documented Case Study

Hypnosis was successfully used to overcome a $500 (five grams) per day cocaine addiction. The subject was a female in her twenties. After approximately 8 months of addiction, she decided to use hypnosis in an attempt to overcome the addiction itself. Over the next 4 months, she used hypnosis three times a day and at the end of this period, her addiction was broken, and she has been drug free for the past 9 years. Hypnosis was the only intervention, and no support network of any kind was available.

The use of hypnosis in cocaine addiction. Page RA, Handley GW, Ohio State University, Lima, OH USA 45804. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 1993 Oct;36(2):120-3.

Healed 41% faster from fracture

Healed significantly faster from surgery

Two studies from Harvard Medical School show hypnosis significantly reduces the time it takes to heal.

Study One: Six weeks after an ankle fracture, those in the hypnosis group showed the equivalent of eight and a half weeks of healing.

Study Two: Three groups of people studied after breast reduction surgery. Hypnosis group healed “significantly faster” than supportive attention group and control group.

Harvard Medical School, Carol Ginandes and Union Institute in Cincinnati, Patricia Brooks, Harvard University Gazette Online at http://www.hno.harvard.edu/gazette/2003/05.08/01-hypnosis.html.
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The effectiveness of Hypnosis

This article*, written by Mike Bundrant appeared in Natural News in April 2013. It describes the ways hypnosis influences the various frequency waves produced in the human brain and talks about a range of empirical evidence showing the positive physiological effects of hypnosis.

The validity of therapeutic hypnosis as a complementary modality is becoming recognized, as studies prove brainwave activity changes with hypnotic depth. As we move from the high-energy beta wave state to the slower theta waves, we experience perceptual and physiological changes; for example our eyes flutter, breathing is more rhythmic, the body is relaxed and time is distorted.

Interestingly, children and animals tend to reside in the alpha/theta waves, thus are more intuitive and emotional. According to Crawford, a prominent researcher in the hypnotic field, different parts of the brain are activated during hypnosis – some increasing from 13%-28%. Preliminary results also suggest the reward pathway in the brain involving dopamine is stimulated. In fact, research using fMRI shows that hypnosis requires more mental effort, hence individuals are in a heightened state of awareness.

The power of hypnosis coupled with suggestion changes belief systems by reframing the meaning we place on experience. William Tiller, a former Professor Emeritus at Stanford University aptly states, “What we give meaning to we become.”

Studies on the effects of hypnotherapy abound, for example, those tested positive for tuberculosis using the Mantoux test method were able to inhibit the test reaction following hypnotic suggestion. Interestingly, the use of cooling images for burn victims greatly increased speed of recovery. Hypnotic suggestions given pre and post surgery reduced the need for excessive anesthesia and medication.

This clearly shows that hypnosis has a neuropsychoimmunological effect on the individual; highlighting its versatility, encompassing far more than it’s traditional uses for habit management, fears and weight loss. So what allows us to delve into this part of ourselves? Consciousness is defined as awareness. How many of us are completely aware of every waking moment? Read On

* http://www.naturalnews.com/039759_medical_hypnosis_studies_effectiveness.html – Natural News April 3rd, 2013, by Mike Bundrant.

 

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How Effective is Hypnosis?

How effective is Hypnosis?

It’s an important question, especially for anybody considering using hypnosis to address one of the many problems where it can be of real benefit.

Over the last hundred years, there has been a huge amount of research, including well designed clinical studies, provingt hypnotherapy’s efficacy.

Below is a review of just a few of them.

Self-Hypnosis

Self-hypnosis has been used to treat a wide variety of clinical problems. Succesful outcomes involving self-hypnosis with adults or children have been reported for the treatment of anxiety (including test anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, simple phobia and panic disorder), chronic pain (including psychogenic dysphonia, post-traumatic contractures of the hand, abdominal pain and tension headaches) and habit disorders (including smoking, over-eating, alcoholism and drug addiction) as well as in the management of mourning, hypertension, cancer, tinnitus, enuresis, insomnia and depression. The findings from empirical studies and case reports indicate merit in the clinical use of self-hypnosis, and point to some features of self-hypnosis that appear important in positive treatment outcomes. (Lucy O’Neill & Kevin McConkey, ‘Treating anxiety with self-hypnosis and relaxation’, Contemporary Hypnosis, 1999, vol. 16(2):68)

In a research study involving over 100 patients suffering from stress-related conditions it was found that 75% felt their symptoms were improving after 12 weeks of self-hypnosis practice, within one year 72% of the group reported complete remission of their symptoms as a result of the self-hypnosis. (Maher-Loughnan, G.P. 1980, “Hypnosis: Clinical application of hypnosis in medicine’,British Journal of Hospital Medicine, 23: 447-55)

Over a six year period, 173 successive patients suffering from asthma were treated using self-hypnosis, 82% were either much improved or experienced total remission of symptoms. (Maher-Loughnan, G.P. 1970, ‘Hypnosis and autohypnosis for the treatment of asthma’, International Journal of Clinical & Experimental Hypnosis. 18: 1 -14)

A study of 20 individuals compared the use of self-hypnosis and relaxation therapy in managing anxiety over 28 days. Both groups were shown to have achieved significant reduction in psychological and physical symptoms of anxiety. However, the self-hypnosis group exhibited greater confidence in the positive effects of the treatment, higher expectation of success, and greater degrees of cognitive and physical improvement. (Lucy O’Neill, Amanda Barnier, & Kevin McConkey, ‘Treating Anxiety with self-hypnosis and relaxation’,Contemporary Hypnosis, 1999, vol. 16 (2): 68)

‘Various case studies have reported the succesful use of self-hypnosis in treating post-traumatic stress disorder, public speaking, simple phobia and panic disorder. Overall, previous speculations and empirical findings suggest that increases in a sense of self-reliance, self-control and self-efficacy may be central to the alleviation of anxiety through self-hypnosis.’ (Lucy O’Neill, Amanda Barnier, & Kevin McConkey, ‘Treating Anxiety with self-hypnosis and relaxation’,Contemporary Hypnosis, 1999, vol. 16 (2): 68)

Insomnia

A recent ‘Clinical Review’ of hypnosis and relaxation therapies published in the BMJ looked at the existing research on hypnosis and concluded that hypnosis was proven to be effective for treating insomnia. (Vickers & Zollman, ‘Hypnosis and relaxation therapies,’ BMJ 1999;319: 1346-1349)

Asthma

Over a six year period, 173 successive patients suffering from asthma were treated using self-hypnosis, 82% were either much improved or experienced total remission of symptoms. (Maher-Loughnan, G.P. 1970, ‘Hypnosis and autohypnosis for the treatment of asthma’, International Journal of Clinical & Experimental Hypnosis. 18: 1 -14)

A recent ‘Clinical Review’ of hypnosis and relaxation therapies published in the BMJ looked at the existing research on hypnosis and concluded: ‘Randomised trials have shown hypnosis to be of value in treating asthma […]‘ (Vickers & Zollman, ‘Hypnosis and relaxation therapies,’ BMJ 1999;319: 1346-1349)

Pain

Following an extensive review of the existing literature on hypnotherapy, a special committee commissioned by the British Medical Association formally concludede that: ‘In addition to the treatment of psychiatric disabilities, there is a place for hypnotism in the production of anaesthesia or analgesia for surgical and dental operations, and in suitable subjects it is an effective method of relieving pain in childbirth without altering the normal course of labour.’ (BMA, ‘Medical use of hypnotism’, BMJ, 1955, vol. I, 190-193)

A recent ‘Clinical Review’ of hypnosis and relaxation therapies published in the BMJ looked at the existing research on hypnosis and concluded: ‘Randomised controlled trials support the use of various relaxation techniques for treating both acute and chronic pain,’ (Vickers & Zollman, ‘Hypnosis and relaxation therapies,’ BMJ 1999;319: 1346-1349)

Anxiety/Phobia

Following an extensive review of the existing literature on hypnotherapy, the British Medical Association concluded that hypnotherapy was not only effective but may be ‘the treatment of choice’ in dealing with anxiety (‘psychoneurosis’) and stress-related (‘psycho-somatic’) disorders: ‘The Subcommittee is satisfied after consideration of the available evidence that hypnotism is of value and may be the treatment of choice in some cases of so-called psycho-somatic disorder and psychoneurosis. It may also be of value for revealing unrecognised motives and conflicts in such conditions. As a treatment, in the opinion of the Subcommittee it has proved its ability to remove symptoms and to alter morbid habits of thought and behaviour. […]‘ (BMA, ‘Medical use of hypnotism’, BMJ, 1955, vol. I, 190-193)

A recent ‘Clinical Review’ of hypnosis and relaxation therapies published in the BMJ looked at the existing research on hypnosis and concluded: ‘There is good evidence from randomised controlled trials that both hypnosis and relaxation techniques can reduce anxiety […]‘, the same report also concluded that hypnosis was proven to be effective in treating panic attacks and phobia. (Vickers & Zollman, ‘Hypnosis and relaxation therapies,’ BMJ 1999;319: 1346-1349)

A study of 20 individuals compared the use of self-hypnosis and relaxation therapy in managing anxiety over 28 days. Both groups were shown to have achieved significant reduction in psychological and physical symptoms of anxiety. However, the self-hypnosis group exhibited greater confidence in the positive effects of the treatment, higher expectation of success, and greater degrees of cognitive and physical improvement. (Lucy O’Neill, Amanda Barnier, & Kevin McConkey, ‘Treating Anxiety with self-hypnosis and relaxation’,Contemporary Hypnosis, 1999, vol. 16 (2): 68)

Sexual Issues

In a study of 189 people with psychological issues relating to sex, it was proven that self-hypnosis combined with cognitive therapy was more effective than cognitive therapy alone. When self-hypnosis was taught, the number of sessions required was less, relaspse was less likely, and clients expressed more satisfaction with the overall outcome. (Carrese & Araoz, ‘Self-Hypnosis in sexual functioning.’ Australian Journal of Clinical Hypnotherapy & Hypnosis, 1998: Sep., vol 19(2):41-48)

IBS

A recent ‘Clinical Review’ of hypnosis and relaxation therapies published in the BMJ looked at the existing research on hypnosis and concluded: ‘Randomised trials have shown hypnosis to be of value in treating […] irritable bowel syndrome.’ (Vickers & Zollman, ‘Hypnosis and relaxation therapies,’ BMJ 1999;319: 1346-1349)

An experimental study of 12 patients with IBS showed that treatment resulted in significant improvement in symptoms and reduction in related anxiety. (Galovski, T.E., and E.B. Blanchard, ‘The treatment of irritable bowel syndrome with hypnotherapy.’ Applied Psychophysiology & Feedback, 1998: Dec., vo. 23(4):219-232)

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Using Hypnosis for Spinal Cord Injury Pain Management

spinal cord injury

Click on picture to watch video

Presented on September 11, 2007, by Shelley Wiechman, PhD, assistant professor in the Department of Rehabilitation Medicine at the University of Washington. Dr. Wiechman discusses what hypnosis is, how it is used to treat pain, and what the research on hypnosis for treating pain shows so far.

She reviews virtual reality and its use in improving hypnosis treatment and shows a video clip of a burn patient using virtual reality for pain management. Finally, Dr. Wiechman provides a demonstration of hypnosis induction and talks about how to find a therapist trained in hypnosis for chronic pain management.

 

 

 

 

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Hypnotherapy and Self Confidence

People who are self confident and self-assured tend to be those who are naturally sociable, who achieve success in their chosen profession or career and who take full advantage of all opportunities that come their way in life.  People are attracted to confident people and enjoy spending time in their company:  they tend to be happier and more relaxed, and are often easier to be with than those who lack self-confidence and self-esteem.

self-esteemMany of us will suffer with a lack of confidence at some point in our lives and this is only natural (see section below on how hypnosis can help), however for some people this lack of confidence is an almost constant backdrop in their lives.

Life can be quite challenging for those who have poor levels of self-confidence, self-belief and/or self-image.  For example, making and keeping friends can be difficult; socialising in large groups may create anxiety or worry; going for job interviews may be problematic; speaking on the telephone may not be easy; even buying new clothes may be stressful.  For this group of people, there are likely to be unresolved issues from their past that are undermining their confidence levels on a daily basis.

Many of the features, and the impact, of low self-confidence mirror issues associated with problems such as anxietystress,  and social phobia  and it is likely that many people who have low self-confidence also suffer aspects of these other difficulties.

How Hypnotherapy Can Help

If you are experiencing a lack of confidence over an upcoming event, for example, you are due to give a best man’s speech, or you are going to a party where you won’t know many people, or maybe you are looking to change your job, then hypnosis, combined with suggestion therapy can enable you to increase your belief in yourself and your self-confidence, enabling you to feel more proficient and in control.

It can provide you with a greater sense of self; it can boost self-esteem; it can help you build on your self-belief and you can have a strong visual image of yourself being calm and self-assured in your upcoming event.

An added bonus is that hypnosis is wonderfully relaxing and reduces stress levels.

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A Brief History of Hypnosis

We’ve been using hypnosis for rather a long time; longer, it turns out, than medicine as a practice has been around.

More than 3000 years ago it was used in India, and in the British Museum there is a bas relief taken from a tomb in Thebes that shows an Egyptian hypnotist and his patient.

Aesculapius, the ancient Roman God of Healing, was able to relieve pain by stroking with his hands to induce long and refreshing sleep in his patients, while, according to Tacitus,  Hippocrates, (460BC – 370BC), spoke of impressing health on the ill by “passes.” 

In 1766, Franz Anton Mesmer formulated his theory on animal magnetism, which he published in Paris in 1779. For a long time, hypnosis was referred to as ‘Mesmerism’, although, technically Mesmer thought of the process as having something to do with a quality he called, ‘Animal Magnetism’.

In 1823, the French Academy concluded that “research on magnetism should be encouraged as constituting a most curious branch of psychology.”

In the mid 19th Century, John Elliotson, the first Professor of the Practice of Medicine at the University Hospital, London, used hypnosis to prepare patients for  major surgery. Many reported feeling no discomfort during the procedures. In one case, Elliotson removed a tumour weight 36 Kg, from a patient whom he had spent four days preparing with hypnosis.

In the late 19th Century, a Manchester surgeon named, John Braid, recognized that with the induction of the ‘mesmeric state’, the eyes exhibited a peculiar type of movement that he thought was of a reflex n a t u r e  He broke away from Mesmer’s theory and believed that the “state” resulted from some physiological change in the individual induced by tiring the eyes, and this resulted in a peculiar physiological condition of the brain and the spinal cord. It was Braid who recognized the importance of suggestion and devised the name “hypnosis.”

From then until the development of anaesthetic drugs  around the turn of the 20th Century, with their huge advantage of having an almost instantaneous effect, hypnosis was commonly used to reduce and even eliminate all sensation during surgical procedures.

However for thousands of years, hypnosis has been recognised as a powerful and effective tool in the treatment of a wide range of conditions, and is becoming increasingly used in the 21st C, as science recognises the extent of the mind/body connection.

There is little that happens in the body that the mind doesn’t influence, much of which takes place at the subconscious level.

Which is precisely where hypnosis does its best work

 

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Hypnotherapy in Dentistry

Hypnosis is becoming widely used in dentistry, especially in cases where side effects make the use of certain drugs problematic.

Fear of needles and involuntary gagging, both of which dentists encounter in the patients from time to time, respond extremely well to hypnotherapy.

In this a paper published in the American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, and titled, Three Case Reports in Dental Hypnotherapy*, J. Arthur Weyandt D.S.S., describes case studies where hypnosis proved effective with dentistry patients.

You can read the paper here

* J. Arthur Weyandt D.S.S. (1972): Three Case Reports in Dental Hypnotherapy, American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 15:1, 49-55

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Hypnotherapy and Social Anxiety

Social Anxiety is a strong fear of being in a situation with other people where we might be judged by them and or become acutely embarrassed.This fear can be so strong that it gets in the way of going to work or school or doing other everyday things.

Everyone has felt anxious or embarrassed at one time or another. For example, meeting new people or giving a public speech can make anyone nervous.

But people with social anxiety worry about these and other things for weeks before they happen. People with social anxiety are afraid of doing common things in front of other people. For example, just walking into a room where a crowd is gathered can be a truly terrifying experience for those suffering from Social Anxiety and may result in physical symptoms such as shaking, a feeling of weakness at the knees or sweaty palms.

Hypnotherapy is a highly effective way of addressing Social Anxiety and almost always clears the problem up in a few sessions.

Almost all anxieties and phobias have underlying causes, many of which lie in our past experiences. Often they’re a consequence of the subconcious taking what it thinks are logical steps to protect us from repeating a situation that has caused us distress in the past.

Using hypnosis I work directly with the subconscious to develop new, more effective and useful strategies for it to keep you safe, and the symptoms and feelings of anxiety usually disappear quite quickly.

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Hypnotherapy and Vaginismus

Many studies have shown that hypnotherapy is highly effective in the treatment of vaginismus and in the control of  the extremely painful spasms associated with it.

In a study published in ScienceDirect’*, Reza Pourhosein  and Zeynab Bahrami Ehsan of the Department of Psychology, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran, and the Department of Psychology, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia, show that hypnotherapy, describe how hypnotherapy was used to effectively treat a young woman suffering from a debilitating case of vaginismus.

You can read the entire article here.

*  ‘Using Hypnosis in a case of Vaginismus: A Case Report’*, Reza Pourhosein  and Zeynab Bahrami Ehsan of the Department of Psychology, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran, and the Department of Psychology, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia, 1877–0428 © 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2011.04.389

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